Race and IQ
While IQ scores of individual members of different racial or ethnic groups are distributed across the IQ scale, groups vary in where their members cluster along the IQ scale. Ashkenazi Jews and East Asians cluster higher than Europeans, while "Hispanics" and Sub-Saharan Africans cluster lower. Much research has been devoted to the extent and potential causes of racial-ethnic group differences in IQ, and the underlying purposes and validity of the tests has been examined. Most experts conclude that examination of many types of test bias and simple differences in socioeconomic status have failed to explain the IQ clustering differences. For a summary of expert opinions, see Race and Intelligence.
The findings in this field are often thought to conflict with fundamental social philosophies, and have engendered a large controversy.